NURS FPX4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

NURS FPX4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Health Promotion Plan

Health promotion plans are necessary to attain a quality of life and improve health services because issues like bullying have become common in many countries (Armitage, 2021). However, nurses are crucial and play an important role in developing plans of care to address local, national, and international health issues. The major reason for these concerns, like bullying, is health illiteracy, that people are unaware of available resources and the consequences of such concerns (Armitage, 2021). Therefore, in this assessment, I will plan a hypothetical clinical learning experience about bullying to promote quality of life and the importance of health promotional plans. Furthermore, SMART goals will be incorporated to reduce the health disparities and consequences of bullying.  

Scenario

One case I recently experienced in Vila Health Center was where one African-American girl named Aleena came with her mother and complained of depression and anxiety (Moslimani et al., 2023). By discussing with her, we found that she experienced bullying in her school due to belonging to an ethnic group. Due to employment and health concerns, Aleena’s family has recently transferred from Alaska to Chicago. Aleena joined the school in the district of Chicago, where she felt uninvited, and all white Americans bullied her physically and verbally (Armitage, 2021).

Demographics

According to National Bullying Prevention Center, every one out of five students experiences bullying (20.2%), where a higher percentage of females (18%) than males (9%) who experience bullying are the subject of false rumors (Prevention Center, 2020). 

Furthermore, females (7%) percentage is higher than males (4%) who are being excluded from activities on purpose due to belonging to ethnic groups (Prevention Center, 2020). Similarly, Aleena became subject to false rumors and excluded from any activities held in school on purpose by white Americans, which caused her depression and lowered her self-esteem. Aleena is a 17-year-old African-American girl who belongs to a lower-class family where health accessibility and affordability probability are low. She has been bullied due to her belonging to an ethnic group and not having the resources to afford basic necessities. As per the National Bullying Prevention Center, female students have a slightly higher percentage than male students who reported being bullied in schools, indicating 24% vs. 17% (Prevention Center, 2020).

Health Concern that is the Focus of Health Promotion Plan

Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior where one person or a group of individuals intentionally harm, intimidate, or harass another person who is perceived as vulnerable or less powerful (Armitage, 2021). It typically involves repetitive and prolonged negative actions and can occur in various settings, such as schools, workplaces, or online platforms. Bullying can have severe psychological, emotional, and physical effects on the victim, leading to low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, academic difficulties, social isolation, and in extreme cases, self-harm or suicide (Armitage, 2021). Similarly, Aleena also faced psychological, emotional, and physical severe impacts, which caused her depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Moslimani et al., 2023). Therefore, it is necessary to address this issue and develop an adequate plan to help Aleena and reduce the impact of bullying in schools.    

Underlying Assumptions and Points of Uncertainty 

It is generally assumed that bullying has negative consequences for the victims, such as emotional distress, lowered self-esteem, academic difficulties, and potentially long-term psychological effects (Salmivalli et al., 2021). It is assumed that the school climate plays a significant role in determining the prevalence and severity of bullying. A positive and supportive school environment is believed to contribute to reduced instances of bullying and better outcomes for students (Salmivalli et al., 2021).

The uncertainty of this analysis is based on the fact that the prevalence of bullying may be underestimated due to underreporting by victims or witnesses. Some children may fear retaliation, social stigma, or lack trust in the effectiveness of reporting mechanisms (Salmivalli et al., 2021). As a result, the actual extent of bullying incidents may be higher than reported data suggests. Traditional forms of bullying, such as physical or verbal aggression, are often more visible and easier to identify. However, covert or indirect forms of bullying, such as relational aggression or cyberbullying, can be harder to detect. This can result in an incomplete picture of bullying incidents, making it difficult to fully address the problem (Salmivalli et al., 2021).

Health Concern Importance for Health Promotion 

According to Xu et al. (2019), 27.7% of African Americans reported bullying perpetration behavior higher than that of white Americans. Furthermore, the prevalence of bullying in schools is higher among African Americans, almost 56%, as compared to white Asian and Latinos students (Xu et al., 2019). Furthermore, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, black/African Americans are the second largest population in the United States (HHS.gov. 2023). Hence, research indicates that African American children may experience bullying at higher rates than their counterparts from other racial or ethnic backgrounds. This higher prevalence of bullying suggests a specific vulnerability within the African-American population that requires attention (Xu et al., 2019).

Bullying has significant implications for mental and emotional well-being. African-American children like Aleena, who experience bullying, may risk developing mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem (Lee et al., 2021). In addition, bullying can negatively affect academic performance. African-American students like Aleena, who experience bullying, may face difficulties concentrating, increased absenteeism, and lower academic achievement (Lee et al., 2021). 

Therefore, addressing bullying is crucial, and by addressing bullying as a health concern, it becomes possible to mitigate its cumulative impact on the health and well-being of African-American individuals throughout their lives (Lee et al., 2021). For this purpose, by creating safe and inclusive environments, such as schools where bullying is actively discouraged, health promotion efforts contribute to fostering supportive communities that value respect, empathy, and the well-being of all individuals (Lee et al., 2021).

Factors Contributing to Health, Health Disparities, and Access to Services

The primary factors contributing to health, health disparities, and access to services include Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) and racial and ethnic identity (Maness et al., 2020). SDOH, such as socioeconomic status, neighborhood conditions, access to quality education, and exposure to violence, can exacerbate the effects of bullying and contribute to health disparities within the African American community (Maness et al., 2020). Moreover, racism, discrimination, and prejudice can intersect with bullying, leading to heightened psychological distress and isolation. Such experiences can profoundly affect mental health and well-being, requiring specific attention when addressing the health needs of African American children facing bullying (Maness et al., 2020).

Furthermore, health disparities can arise when healthcare providers and professionals lack cultural competence and understanding of the experiences and needs of African American individuals (Omenka et al., 2020). Similarly, African American communities may face barriers to accessing appropriate mental health services, including limited availability of culturally competent providers, financial constraints, stigma around seeking help, and a lack of awareness about available resources (Omenka et al., 2020). 

Addressing the health, health disparities, and access to services for African American children facing bullying requires a comprehensive and multi-faceted approach considering the SDOH, cultural competence, access to mental health services, supportive school environments, and community involvement. Addressing these factors makes it possible to reduce health disparities and promote the overall well-being of African American students who face bullying in schools (Omenka et al., 2020).

Establishing Agreed-Upon Health Goals

Reducing the impact of bullying among African American students in schools requires a comprehensive plan and adequate SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time-frame) (Ackley et al., 2019). These goals help provide medical assistance and identify the factors that are the core competency to reduce issue impact. By involving Aleena, who represents the African American community, in establishing health goals related to bullying in schools, the initiatives become more relevant, impactful, and sustainable (Ackley et al., 2019). 

This collaborative approach promotes cultural sensitivity, community empowerment, trust, and holistic understanding, leading to more effective interventions and improved health outcomes for African American children facing bullying. Therefore, I will create the SMART goals for Aleena to overcome her depression and anxiety state and mitigate the reason that is causing her mental and physical health disturbance (Ackley et al., 2019). 

However, besides Aleena’s involvement, school management incorporation will also be needed because improving the school environment and climate, creating awareness among students, especially white Americans, and improving access to mental health services will help achieve desired objectives. SMART goals are objectives that provide clear direction and facilitate effective planning (Ackley et al., 2019).

SMART Goals 

I decided to implement a few goals and achieve them in three months year, including:

  • Increase Awareness and Reporting among African American and white-American students (Dale, 2022)
  • Enhance School Climate and Supportive Environments for ethnic groups
  • Improve Access to Mental Health Services for Aleena (Dale, 2022)

Goal 1: Increase Awareness and Reporting

  • Specific: Increase awareness and understanding of bullying among white and African American students.
  • Measurable: Decrease the number of bullying incidents reported by African American students by 35% within three academic months.
  • Achievable: Implement educational campaigns and workshops on bullying awareness, prevention, and reporting within schools (Dale, 2022).
  • Relevant: Address the specific needs and experiences of African American students facing bullying.
  • Time-bound: Achieve the target increase in reported incidents within three months.

Goal 2: Enhance School Climate and Supportive Environments

  • Specific: Foster a positive and inclusive school environment for African American students (Dale, 2022).
  • Measurable: Increase the percentage of African American students reporting feeling safe and supported at school by 25% within three months.
  • Achievable: Implement anti-bullying policies, culturally sensitive training for staff, and create support systems for students.
  • Relevant: Address African American students’ unique experiences and challenges in the school environment.
  • Time-bound: Achieve the target increase in the perception of safety and support within three months.

Goal 3: Improve Access to Mental Health Services

  • Specific: Enhance access to mental health services for African American students like Aleena experiencing bullying (Allouche, 2022).
  • Measurable: Increase the percentage of African American students who receive appropriate mental health support by 10% within one year.
  • Achievable: Implement strategies to reduce barriers, such as increasing the number of culturally competent mental health providers or implementing school-based counseling programs (Allouche, 2022). 
  • Relevant: Address the mental health needs specific to Aleena, who faced bullying.
  • Time-bound: Achieve the target increase in students accessing mental health services within three months (Allouche, 2022)

Conclusion NURS FPX4060 Assessment 1 Health Promotion Plan

Bullying can severely affect children’s psychological, emotional, and mental health; therefore, addressing and preventing bullying through education, awareness, and supportive environments that foster empathy, respect, and inclusion is important. However, health disparities like inaccessibility to resources and lack of awareness among ethnic groups like African Americans can cause severe consequences. For this purpose, generating SMART goals will contribute to promoting quality of life and attaining the desired objectives. 

References 

Ackley, B. J., Ladwig, G. B., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M. R., & Zanotti, M. (2019). Nursing diagnosis handbook e-book: An evidence-based guide to planning care. In Google Books. Elsevier Health Sciences. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=lang_en&id=GyOJDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=Reducing+the+impact+of+bullying+among+African+American+students+in+schools+requires+a+comprehensive+plan+and+adequate+SMART+goals+(Specific 

Allouche, S. (2022). Factors associated with racial and ethnic minority youths’ mental health help-seeking at school (Publication No. 5901) [Doctoral Dissertation, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College]. LSU Doctoral Dissertations. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_dissertations/5901/ 

Armitage, R. (2021). Bullying in children: Impact on Child Health. BMJ Paediatrics Open5(1)https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000939 

Dale, B. (2022). Utilizing Tier 2 PBIS interventions to reduce bullying behaviors (Publication No. 192) [Master’s Thesis, Grand Valley State University]. Culminating Experience Projects. https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/gradprojects/192/ 

HHS.gov. (2023, February 23). Black/African American – The Office of Minority Health. Minorityhealth.hhs.gov. https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlID=61#:~:text=Overview%20(Demographics)%3A%20In%202021 

Lee, J. M., Hong, J. S., Resko, S. M., Gonzalez‐Prendes, A. A., & Voisin, D. R. (2021). Pathways from bullying victimization to suicidal thoughts among urban African American adolescents: Implications for nurse practitioners. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursinghttps://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12321 

Maness, S. B., Merrell, L., Thompson, E. L., Griner, S. B., Kline, N., & Wheldon, C. (2020). Social Determinants of Health and health disparities: COVID-19 Exposures and Mortality among African American People in the United States. Public Health Reports136(1), 18–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354920969169 

Moslimani, M., Tamir, C., Budiman, A., Noe-Bustamante, L., & Mora, L. (2023, March 2). Facts about the U.S. black population. Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project. https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/fact-sheet/facts-about-the-us-black-population/#:~:text=The%20South%20is%20also%20the 

Omenka, O. I., Watson, D. P., & Hendrie, H. C. (2020). Understanding the healthcare experiences and needs of African immigrants in the United States: A scoping review. BMC Public Health20(1)https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-8127-9 

Prevention Center, P. N. B. (2020, November). Bullying statistics. Www.pacer.org; PACER Center, inc. https://www.pacer.org/bullying/info/stats.asp 

Salmivalli, C., Laninga‐Wijnen, L., Malamut, S. T., & Garandeau, C. F. (2021). Bullying prevention in adolescence: Solutions and new challenges from the past decade. Journal of Research on Adolescence31(4), 1023–1046. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12688 

Xu, M., Macrynikola, N., Waseem, M., & Miranda, R. (2019). Racial and ethnic differences in bullying: Review and implications for intervention. Aggression and Violent Behavior50https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2019.101340 

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